the-actual-universe:

International Dark Sky Week - April 20-26International Dark Sky Week, created in 2003 by high-school student Jennifer Barlow, is a key component of Global Astronomy Month (April). The International Dark-Sky Association aims to spread awareness to the issues around light pollution as well as provide solutions to mitigate it. In 2001, “The First World Atlas of the Artificial Night Sky Brightness” reported two-thirds of the U.S. population and more than 50% of the European population had already lost the ability to see the Milky Way with the naked eye (x). The report also showed that 63% of the world population and 99% of the population of the European Union and the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) lived in regions where the night sky is brighter than the threshold for light-polluted status set by the International Astronomical Union. In 1994, an earthquake knocked out the power in Los Angeles. Many residents called local emergency centres reporting a strange “giant, silvery cloud” in the dark sky. That giant, silvery cloud was the Milky Way, which many residents had just seen for the first time. Light pollution can also affect human health. Light photons need to impact the retina for biologic effects to occur. Nuisance light becomes a health hazard when there is a lot of artificial light at night, in cities like Manhattan or Las Vegas. This is because there is more opportunity for the retina to be exposed to photons that might disrupt circadian rhythm. The circadian clock is a 24-hour day/night cycle, which affects physiologic processes in most organisms. There is a large amount of epidemiologic evidence that indicates a consistent association between exposure to indoor artificial nighttime light and health problems such as breast cancer (x). This association does not prove that artificial light causes the problem, however laboratory studies have shown exposure to light during the night disrupts circadian and neuroendocrine physiology, which then accelerates tumour growth (x).Flora and fauna are also affected by light pollution. Prolonged exposure to artificial light has been shown to affect trees from adjusting to seasonal variations, which then affects wildlife that depend on trees for their natural habitat (x). Research on wildlife species has shown that light pollution can alter behaviours, foraging areas, and breeding cycles. One dramatic example of this is sea turtles. Many species of sea turtles lay their eggs on beaches, and the females of the species return to the same beaches to nest. When these beaches are brightly lit at night, these lights can disorient the females who then wander onto nearby roadways and get struck by vehicles (x). Sea turtle hatchlings typically head toward the sea by orienting away from the dark silhouette of the landward horizon. With bright artificial lights on the beach, these hatchlings become disoriented and navigate toward the artificial light source, never finding the sea.The image used shows the Bortle Dark Sky Scale, created by John E. Bortle and published here: (1, 2). It is a guide for amateur astronomers and is a nine-level numeric scale that measures the night sky’s and stars’ brightness of a particular location. Class 1 represents the darkest skies available on Earth while Class 9 shows inner-city skiesReducing light pollution is not just about being able to see the night sky much more effectively. It is also about saving money, energy and reducing greenhouse gases while protecting the environment, wildlife, and improving human health. This is not to say that artificial lighting is bad; it is when artificial lighting becomes inefficient, annoying, and unnecessary that it is known as light pollution. To aid in minimising light pollution, you can shield outdoor lighting, or at least angle it downward and use light only when needed. Motion detectors and timers are also useful. Use only the amount of illumination you need and try reducing lamp wattage.Stay tuned on The Universe for Dark Sky Week: we’ll be showcasing various Night Sky photographers and their issues with light pollution, throughout the week.-TELFor more information on light pollution, click here.Sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6Image is a screenshot of the Light Pollution Simulation / Bortle Scale

the-actual-universe:

International Dark Sky Week - April 20-26

International Dark Sky Week, created in 2003 by high-school student Jennifer Barlow, is a key component of Global Astronomy Month (April). The International Dark-Sky Association aims to spread awareness to the issues around light pollution as well as provide solutions to mitigate it. 

In 2001, “The First World Atlas of the Artificial Night Sky Brightness” reported two-thirds of the U.S. population and more than 50% of the European population had already lost the ability to see the Milky Way with the naked eye (x). The report also showed that 63% of the world population and 99% of the population of the European Union and the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) lived in regions where the night sky is brighter than the threshold for light-polluted status set by the International Astronomical Union. In 1994, an earthquake knocked out the power in Los Angeles. Many residents called local emergency centres reporting a strange “giant, silvery cloud” in the dark sky. That giant, silvery cloud was the Milky Way, which many residents had just seen for the first time. 

Light pollution can also affect human health. Light photons need to impact the retina for biologic effects to occur. Nuisance light becomes a health hazard when there is a lot of artificial light at night, in cities like Manhattan or Las Vegas. This is because there is more opportunity for the retina to be exposed to photons that might disrupt circadian rhythm. The circadian clock is a 24-hour day/night cycle, which affects physiologic processes in most organisms. There is a large amount of epidemiologic evidence that indicates a consistent association between exposure to indoor artificial nighttime light and health problems such as breast cancer (x). This association does not prove that artificial light causes the problem, however laboratory studies have shown exposure to light during the night disrupts circadian and neuroendocrine physiology, which then accelerates tumour growth (x).

Flora and fauna are also affected by light pollution. Prolonged exposure to artificial light has been shown to affect trees from adjusting to seasonal variations, which then affects wildlife that depend on trees for their natural habitat (x). Research on wildlife species has shown that light pollution can alter behaviours, foraging areas, and breeding cycles. 

One dramatic example of this is sea turtles. Many species of sea turtles lay their eggs on beaches, and the females of the species return to the same beaches to nest. When these beaches are brightly lit at night, these lights can disorient the females who then wander onto nearby roadways and get struck by vehicles (x). Sea turtle hatchlings typically head toward the sea by orienting away from the dark silhouette of the landward horizon. With bright artificial lights on the beach, these hatchlings become disoriented and navigate toward the artificial light source, never finding the sea.

The image used shows the Bortle Dark Sky Scale, created by John E. Bortle and published here: (1, 2). It is a guide for amateur astronomers and is a nine-level numeric scale that measures the night sky’s and stars’ brightness of a particular location. Class 1 represents the darkest skies available on Earth while Class 9 shows inner-city skies

Reducing light pollution is not just about being able to see the night sky much more effectively. It is also about saving money, energy and reducing greenhouse gases while protecting the environment, wildlife, and improving human health. This is not to say that artificial lighting is bad; it is when artificial lighting becomes inefficient, annoying, and unnecessary that it is known as light pollution. To aid in minimising light pollution, you can shield outdoor lighting, or at least angle it downward and use light only when needed. Motion detectors and timers are also useful. Use only the amount of illumination you need and try reducing lamp wattage.

Stay tuned on The Universe for Dark Sky Week: we’ll be showcasing various Night Sky photographers and their issues with light pollution, throughout the week.

-TEL

For more information on light pollution, click here.
Sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Image is a screenshot of the Light Pollution Simulation / Bortle Scale

womenofgraphicdesign:

Nike “Swoosh” logo, designed by Carolyn Davidson in 1971. Davidson was studying graphic design at Portland State University when she came up with the famous mark.

womenofgraphicdesign:

Nike “Swoosh” logo, designed by Carolyn Davidson in 1971. Davidson was studying graphic design at Portland State University when she came up with the famous mark.

classicpenguin:

This is too fun not to share.
We recently received a letter from a perceptive Classics reader noting a possible error in our current edition of Jane Eyre. Here’s the passage in question — a John Reed tirade:

"Where the dickens is she?," he continued. "Lizzy? Georgy (calling to his sisters) Joan is not here: tell mamma she is run out into the rain — bad animal!"

Joan? Joan Eyre? Surely not. Fascinated, we took this query Stevie Davies, editor of our current edition and resident Bronte expert, who gave us this enlightening answer.

Delighted to be asked, and it’s a good question, asked by a keen-eyed reader, because it picks up some of the meticulous verbal nuancing and class inflection that make Jane Eyre so authentic a social document. John Reed is calling Jane by a version of her name he considers proper to the lower ranks. This goes right back - Shakespeare: ‘Greasy Joan doth keel the pots.’

Oh, the ever-so-subtle art of the Victorian dis. John Reed is such a toad. Can someone please prepare a list of low-rent versions of common names so we can bring these insults back?

classicpenguin:

This is too fun not to share.

We recently received a letter from a perceptive Classics reader noting a possible error in our current edition of Jane Eyre. Here’s the passage in question — a John Reed tirade:

"Where the dickens is she?," he continued. "Lizzy? Georgy (calling to his sisters) Joan is not here: tell mamma she is run out into the rain — bad animal!"

Joan? Joan Eyre? Surely not. Fascinated, we took this query Stevie Davies, editor of our current edition and resident Bronte expert, who gave us this enlightening answer.

Delighted to be asked, and it’s a good question, asked by a keen-eyed reader, because it picks up some of the meticulous verbal nuancing and class inflection that make Jane Eyre so authentic a social document. John Reed is calling Jane by a version of her name he considers proper to the lower ranks. This goes right back - Shakespeare: ‘Greasy Joan doth keel the pots.’

Oh, the ever-so-subtle art of the Victorian dis. John Reed is such a toad. Can someone please prepare a list of low-rent versions of common names so we can bring these insults back?

movieposteroftheday:

Official poster for the 2014 Cannes Film Festival
Designers: Herve Chigioni and Gilles Frappier
Poster source: IMPAwards

movieposteroftheday:

Official poster for the 2014 Cannes Film Festival

Designers: Herve Chigioni and Gilles Frappier

Poster source: IMPAwards

omnia-est-vanitas:

Why does it feel like 80% of social justice is congratulating oneself on being so enlightened and looking down on anyone who doesn’t fit a certain brand of SJ orthodoxy?

I need a fucking break from this movement, it’s too narcissistic for even me.

spaceexp:

Relative size of stars

spaceexp:

Relative size of stars

Kid in my class just admitted his love for cy twombly, fitzgerald, and woody allen in a single, revealing sentence. I am going to hit him in the dick.